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Jewish Jubilee Cyles measure Old Testament history. Modern chronology counts similar 49-Year and 50-Year Jubilee Cycles as 7-cycles of 7-year-weeks. Historians are prone to apply ordinary 365 day-solar-years and disregard the ancient 364 day-Ethiopic-year. Continuity of 7-day weeks is maintained with whole number integer results.


49-50 Year Jubilee Cycles


Jewish 49-Year and 50-Year Jubilee Cycles are similar in many respects while representing two individual time streams. Modern chronology typically associates 49-Year and 50-Year Jubilee Cycles with ordinary 365 day-solar-years. Sabbath 7-day-weeks and Sabbath 7-year-weeks embody numerical matching philosophy. Jubilee Cycles are sometimes called Sabbatical Cycles to indicate 7-cycles of 7-year-weeks are in effect. The 49-Year Jubilee Sabbatical Cycle is long known. A last transition year to the 50-Year Jubilee Cycle, so widely construed, automatically emphasizes a Sabbatical system that tries to accommodate 365 day-solar-years instead of 364 day-Ethiopic-years. Substituting 364 day-Ethiopic-years impacts how and why Patriarch Seth utilizes the Jewish version of the 105-Ethiopic-Year Venus Round. Scriptures below outline the original Jewish lunar/solar calendar since the Exodus. Minor adjustments have enabled current Metonic 19-year lunar/solar cycles. Lawgiver Moses and Aaron are instructed how to begin the sacred festival calendar.


Exodus 12:2

This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.


The first day of the Hebrew month Nisan begins the first month of the modern calendar. Nisan was considered the new year for counting years based on the reigns of ancient kings in Israel. Nisan also begins the new year that orders Jewish holidays. Nisan usually occurs near April in preparation for the Passover celebration. Modernized years are counted from the seventh month on Rosh HaShanah, or the first of Tishri. The Hebrew Head of the Year,  Rosh HaShanah is observed with schofar blasts and marks as the anniversary of Creation. Adam, as the first man, was fashioned on the first of Tishri and the sixth day of the Creative Week. Rosh Hashanah begins a 10-day period of somber reflection and planning self-improvement in the upcoming new year. The Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur follows on the tenth day of Tishri from scripture.


Numbers 29:1
And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have an holy convocation;
ye shall do no servile work: it is a day of blowing the trumpets unto you.


Leviticus 23:27
Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement:
it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls,
and offer an offering made by fire unto the Lord.



We can easily see lunar/solar calendar formulation at this early juncture. Remembering Judaism changes the day just after sunset, these scriptures designate Rosh HaShanah to be a one or two day holiday according to Gregorian reckoning. The autumnal festival is observed on the first and second of Tishri. A 10-day period of introspection begins with Rosh HaShanah and lasts until Yom Kippur. These are called the Days of Awe when plans are made to correct past mistakes.

Primary emphasis of the Jewish Calendar is the lunar year. Lunar-side years are either 353, 354 or 355-days. Exceptions are based on the additions of the Second Adar month and further refinements. Seven times over a
Metonic 19-year lunar/solar cycle, Second Adar inserts intercalary time to keep the lunar-side on track with the 365 day-solar-year. Any lunar/solar calendar requires some method of additional intercalary months so that lunar and solar years may track together. The contemporary 19 year l/s-cycle applies 29-day or 30-day Second Adar months every two or three years, and they usually alternate lengths. Looking back to the time of Moses, Leviticus and other scriptures specify a 49-Year Jubilee Cycle pattern. Preserving Sabbath continuity has always been a major tenet of Judaism at large.


Leviticus 25:8
And thou shalt number seven sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years;
and the space of the seven sabbaths of years shall be unto thee forty and nine years.


Conventional estimates for Jewish chronology, particularly involving Old Testament kings, associate both a 365 day-solar-year and relative Gregorian Calendar reckoning with 50-Year Jubilee Cycles. Historians have long dismissed Apocryphal books citing multiple deterrents to their validity. The style of writing, including tense and spelling, tends to reinforce much later composition toward the end of the first millennium BCE. Spiritual allegiance seems questionable especially whenever angelic or demonic influences are described. Some works have parts that tie into neighboring mythologies, too. Reservations concerning false worship and external gods have greatly distanced lesser texts from more reliable sources.

Discoveries like the Qumran fragments and related archeological evidence has caused biblical enthusiasts to revisit a long standing debate. After all the translations and revisions have been accounted for, cognizant scholars can detect grains of authenticity. More etymology or word studies coupled with adjoining science have proven a sense of respect for writings previously ignored. Phrases and terminology found in the Masoretic text, Septuagint and other comprehensive documentation deemed canonical have given rise to rethink certain attitudes. Early Christian authors were known to discard many works based upon cooperation with Jewish leaders. Texts were sometimes labeled heretical or negatively assessed for value. Differences between 49-Year and 50-Year Jubilee Cycles are a single aspect of lost substance.

Egyptologists reason the earliest calendar of the Pharaohs was lunar/solar. Regional spirituality gradually replaced the sacred religious lunar/solar system with a traditional civil 365 day-solar-calendar. Mythical character Seth first cuts Osiris into 14 parts and preserves the phallus. Osiris is a masculine god of the dead and fertility. The corpse is then placed in a special coffin by Seth and 72 conspirators. The box is tossed into the Nile, where upon Isis magically discovers it at Byblus. Plutarch substitutes the Greek name Typhon for Seth. His version purports Seth-Typhon conspiring against Osiris with 73 others. Seth proceeds to dismember Osiris into 14 pieces and scatter them throughout Egypt. Isis reassembles Osiris and with the aid of a wooden figurine to represent the phallus; she conceives new king Horus.
wooden figurine to represent the phallus
wooden figurine to represent the phallus
wooden figurine to represent the phallus
wooden figurine to represent the phallus
wooden figurine to represent the phallus


Stories about Isis and Osiris clearly link to lunar/solar calendars emerging from foundational dynastic periods. Isis symbolizes a lunar-side mother of rebirth by rejoining 2-weeks in a lunar cycle. Light and dark, sun and moon were the eyes of Horus. Seth's conspiracy consisting of 72 participants enumerates a pattern now distinguishable in Mesoamerican Calendars. Comparing 5 Wayeb-days belonging to Mayan culture, is essentially the same mathematically as 5 Epagomenal-days once celebrated by Egypt's Feast of the Walking Stick festival. Both systems include a special 5 holiday supplement beyond 360-days. The esteemed Jewish holidays called Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur were likewise positioned around the 360-day midpoint between lunar and solar years.

Protodynastic Egypt is divided into Naqada I, II and III periods, and extends in principle from 4400 BCE up to about 3000 BCE. Indigenous people traded with Nubia to the south, western desert dwellers and eastern Mediterranean cultures. Old Kingdom inhabitants were importing obsidian from Ethiopia and ceder wood from Lebanon by the Early Bronze Age, 2650 BCE. Old Kingdom kings of Egypt were related in dynastic fashion. They assumed the role of living gods in name and sovereign control. Close association with Nubia, Ethiopia and neighboring communities brought new ideas. Nile river flooding and stable farming conditions allowed the people to thrive in a geographically fixed culture.

Geb, god of the Earth, and Sky goddess Nut were the cosmic parents of Sun-god Ra (Ray, or Re). First references to Ra date from 2800 BCE and the second dynasty. Ra represents the sun dawning from primordial waters. Ra develops in prominence with close ties to kingship and the afterlife. The fifth dynasty (c. 2500 BCE) saw Egyptian gods and their namesakes begin to proliferate. At his rising Ra becomes Atum, a variant that begins to acquire almost monotheistic importance. Worship transpires to a sun disk picture in dedicated hieroglyph drawings. Names of gods merge with one another, in addition to names of Pharaohs and their personal gods. Atum-Ra and Amun-Ra in the New Kingdom period attest to Creator and solar worship.

The 360-day midpoint length of year is well established by the biblical flood story and cross-cultural traces with Egyptian, Babylonian, Chaldean and other civilizations. During the Early Dynastic Period a new civil 360-day calendar year developed around three trimester seasons grouped into four months each. Each month was divided into three 10-day decades. Lunar-side 354-day years needed intercalation to stay synchronized with solar-years. Egyptians added an extra month to create a Great Year of 384-days every 2 or 3 years. Meanings for the Great Year may allude to further calculations leading to precession of the equinoxes and movement within the animal zodiac.

Geb and Nut eventually give birth to Osiris, Horus, Seth, Isis and Nephtys during an intercalary 5-day period following 360-days. Osiris was born on the first day, Horus the Elder on the second, Seth on the third, Isis on the fourth and Nephthys was the last born on the fifth day. Isis becomes consort to Osiris, and Seth is paired with Nephtys. Finally, young Horus of the horizon personifies Pharaoh on either the second or sometimes last day in the line of 5 Epagomenal-days. Pharaoh is referred to as the son of Ra going forward. Contemporary to the Old Kingdom, the name of Nubian Amun was Amani.

Solar calendar worship helps define Ra, his Pharaonic sons ruling the empire and the entirety of Egyptian mysticism. Sun-god Ra transfers his mythical qualities to his storied son, Osiris and a stellar-side calendar superimposes over the older Solar-Side calendar. Coincidental annual Nile floods and heliacal, dawn risings of star Sirius in Canis Major were Middle Kingdom (2000–1600 BCE) objectives. Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky, reappeared in the sky after an absence of 70-days and heralded the Nile rising. The new year officially began on the first new moon after the rising of Sirius. Ancient Egyptians called the star Sopdet and Greeks chose the name Sothis. The beginning or the opening of the year about four thousand years ago occurred near the summer solstice in early July (modern June 21-22). Sirius opened the way for the Nile flood to return life and fertility back to the land of Egypt following some 70-days of invisibility below the horizon. Isis mourned and wept for beloved husband, Osiris to provide vital Nile flood waters.

Since European scholars began to discover the antiquity encompassed by Egyptian history in the 19th century, nearly everyone has attempted to impart a standard 365 day-solar-year upon every conceivable chronology. All of these calculations, including those dominating biblical history and regnal alignments, are dependent upon relative Gregorian dating. Modern archeology and techniques certainly have added a great deal to our body of archaic study. A more difficult route follows the path of absolute chronology, which exposes the originators' actual meaning. Every gap in the flow of cultural history cannot be filled, nor can anyone hope to gather lengthy hindsight over centuries and millennia, however obvious clues are often well documented.

Jewish 49-Year and 50-Year Jubilee Cycles are written into the annals of Leviticus. Moses vehemently opposed the entire Egyptian pantheon. He did preserve the crown jewels of Egyptian heritage: the Antediluvian Patriarchs. Moses in Hebrew literally means, drawn from or drawn out as a son. Moses was the New Kingdom adopted prince (son) of Pharaoh. Convention assigns Moses to be the son of Ramses II or Ramses III during the Ramessid Period from 1295-1186 BCE. Ramses was the son of Ra during the 19th dynasty and variations surrounding the names are evident. Notice how Moses drops any affiliation with Sun-god Ra in his name.

The calendar tree drawing below (Figure 1) shows two separate 49-Year Jubilee Cycles adding together to make 98-years. There are 7-cycles of 7-year-weeks in each 49-Year Jubilee Cycle. On the far right, a final 7-year-week called week 15 adds to complete the Solar-Side 105-Year Venus Round 3 Age for Jewish Seth. Identical patterns fit a profile for both 364 day-Ethiopic-years or the more common 365 day-solar-year. The building pattern involved is the same and only the total day count is subject to change. Fifteen cycles of 7-year-weeks in two successive groups bring the day count difference to 105-days when a 364 day-Ethiopic-year marks multiple years. A logical, numerical matching process reveals the Solar-Side 105 Day & Year single term.

 
Solar-Side 2 x 49-Year Jubilee Cycle + 7-Year-Week = 105-Year Venus Round Figure 1

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Solar-Side 2 x 49-Year Jubilee Cycle + 7-Year-Week = 105-Year Venus Round Figure 1


Character Horus lends insight to the choice of Solar-Side 364 day-Ethiopic-year or 365 day-solar-year regarding Jubilee Cycles. Two separate Horus identities appear in Egyptian writings with overlapping characteristics and provenance. Horus the Elder definitely belonged to the pre-dynastic era. He was one of the oldest gods in this form representing a deity of light and husband of goddess Hathor. Pharaoh was the embodiment of Horus in life. Pharaoh became Osiris in death. Pharaoh then reunited with the rest of the gods. Horus as Pharaoh was overshadowed by the concept of Pharaoh as the son of Ra during the fifth dynasty.

Sister Isis, daughter of Hather, had Venus connections in Egypt and abroad under a variety of celestial idols. In a battle with Upper Egypt patron Seth (Set), Lower Egypt patron Horus succumbed to having his left eye (moon) gouged out. A new all-seeing eye (Wedjat) was created by moon god Khonsu. Oral traditions enable common folk to understand a transition took place in the heavens without specifically addressing any particular calendar. Genuine calendar changes were dictated by Pharaoh's court and high priesthood. Lunar and solar calendars ran concurrently together and were complete within themselves. Young Horus is the New Kingdom vehicle elite personnel morphed to explain changing intercalary time.

Elder Horus presents a metaphor that describes lunar-side intercalations with deity essence. His Wedjat eye symbolizes a constantly changing lunar-scape for the older lunar/solar calendar. Storied ties to Isis and Osiris expand the lunar/solar system to a lunar/stellar calendar. Over a thousand years later, Horus continues to be a godly metaphor for time divisions of Venus and Sirius. Solar-Side 105-days of lunar/solar separation time are replicated as 105-years through numerical matching acquired via 364 day-Ethiopic-years. Pharaoh Osiris disappears from view, traverses the netherworld for 70-days, and emerges as Horus to signal a new year of vitality for all.

Young Horus fuses with Seth in the New Kingdom following reunification. The once external cultures of Ethiopia, Nubia and Sumeria transplanted the stellar based, 364 day-Ethiopic-year to a religion founded upon the solar worship of Ra. The last 5-days are aligned with the proverbial favorites: Osiris, Horus, Seth, Isis and Nephtys. Horus seems to be an afterthought, marking the second day, (or 362th-day of 365-days) in a parade bearing the next Nile flood during summer solstice.

Amum was the chief god in the Old Kingdom era locally at Thebes. The god of air and wind grew to achieve national recognition by 2100 BCE and was often referred to as king of the gods. Amum and his altered name Atum, were synonymous with Pharaoh and Ra mergers. Hybrid names such as Amun-Ra-Atum linked multiple gods with related backgrounds. Female Pharaoh Hatshepsut (1500 BCE) claimed to be daughter of Amum incarnate as Thutmose I, thus giving her legitimacy to ascend the throne. Hatshepsut's assertion rejuvenated much older god Amum or Atum as Creator god. Auxiliary monotheism resulted to elevate Amum above Ra and the remaining deities. Where Judaism worships a solitary God and forbids any others, Egyptian worship at this time accepted the whole group. Shortly after Hatshepsut died, Moses returned from exile to lead the Exodus (Exodus 2:23).

Leaders and laymen alike agree that Egypt employed a 365 day-solar-year throughout history. Egyptian priest-astronomers successfully joined a multifaceted religious theology with the Venus 5 pointed star by counting 8 solar years. Sirius rising according to the summer solstice further cemented the roles of Isis and Osiris by measuring a 4 solar year pattern exactly like a modern leap day. The 365 day-solar-year is automatically assumed to be the only agent possible to explain the 50-Year Jubilee Cycle mentioned in Leviticus 25:10-12 and elsewhere. New reasoning suggests 364 day-Ethiopic-years in the original plan celebrated the fiftieth year as intercalary point for the entire 50-Year Jubilee Cycle.

Differences between Jewish 364 day-Ethiopic-years and Egyptian civil 365 day-solar-years are best understood in the context written. Continuity for the sacred number 7 is attributable for 7-day-weeks, 7-intercalary-months and 7-year-weeks within the 49-Year Jubilee Cycle. The Ethiopian version of 364-days emphatically does not count the last, 365th-day in the regular computation of the year. Labeling the last day as 0-day (zero) is not entirely accurate either. Special annual counting properties on the last day allowed for sequential Day & Year numerical matching. Consider the 365th-day a special holiday, removed and apart from the ordinary 365 day-solar-year. The definition for this day is largely a matter of semantics which affected early Judaism significantly.

The Egyptian civil 365 day-solar-year is the account so well remembered by history. Osiris, Horus, Seth, Isis and Nephtys are said to have birthdays during the 5 Epagomenal-days at year end. Akhenaten (or Amenhotep IV sometimes) was Pharaoh in the 17th dynasty, around 1335 BCE. He favored abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introduced worship centered on solar deity Aten. Aten reiterates the original Ra preoccupation, now described with monotheistic overtones. For more than 150-years after Hatshepsut, a trend within aristocracy waged disagreement between sun and star worship. Rituals honoring the god(s) were more important than specifically how to count the calendar. Moses departed from Egypt to begin the Exodus shortly after Hatshepsut's death. Some authors feel she was endorsing Judaism. Later rulers following ambiguous rights of succession discredited Akhenaten and slowly restored the polytheism Moses sought to reject. Assigning star worship to represent annual quartering of the year following 360-days left the 365th-day outstanding. Young Horus merging with Seth during these events omits a solitary day to justify only 4 Epagomenal-days. Horus-Seth links intercalary time to planet Venus moving against fixed stars.

Two schools of thought grew within Judaism during the intervening years from the time of the Tabernacle in the desert to building the Holy Temple in Jerusalem. The first group realized the importance of calendar worship using sacred number 7. Units of 7-day-weeks, 7-months of lunar/solar separation time and finally 7-year-weeks resonated in their calendar. The Lord's resolve to preserve Sabbath continuity sanctions the practice today. The 364 day-Ethiopic-year was primarily solar and finished 52-weeks. Lingering traces of Egyptian Ra and polytheism needed to be eradicated. The only alternative choice was the lunar/solar calendar solution. Diaspora favored lunar-side operations for a people always on the go. A lack of fixed ceremonial sighting stones precluded any reason to use either Venus or Sirius as calendar instruments. Moses concentrated God like a powerful magnifying glass by prohibiting all other gods. Lunar/solar separation time forms a dynamic channel between the most primitive, oldest elements of time.

Below the surface of biblical history remains hidden constructs of ancient Egypt. Antediluvian Patriarchs are listed according to lunar/solar strategy and furthermore, a far grander lunar/stellar calendar systemCharacters are named and numbered according to specific time measurements. Jewish 49-Year and 50-Year Jubilee Cycles differ solely by an intercalated amount. Adding two 49-Year Jubilee Cycles makes 98-years (Figure 2). Adding another 7-year-week makes 105-Years to reach Seth Solar Primary 105-Ethiopic-year Venus Round 3 Age (Seth S 105-Y VR 3). Seth Solar Primary 105-Ethiopic-year Venus Round 3 Age repeats as inactive blue Seth Solar Primary 105-Ethiopic-year Venus Round 4 Age prior to achieving Midpoint 1200 l/s-years Age in the Secondary Age Category. During Seth 400-Year Baktun Cycle 4, Seth Solar Primary 105-Ethiopic-year Venus Round 4 Age (Seth S 105-Y VR 4) activates red, totaling the Solar-Side 210-Year Time Split in Figure 2. The Solar-Side of the Antediluvian Calendar ladder accounts 210-Ethiopic-Years or 30 x 7-Ethiopic-Year-Weeks. Extraneous sacred texts such as the Books of Enoch I and II, Jubilees, Dead Sea Scrolls, and The Testaments of Twelve Patriarchs are lasting examples that such a following persisted. Recorded in the Septuagint, more remnants of 49-Year Jubilee Cycles mix patterns consisting of 364 day-Ethiopic-years and corollary 365 day-solar-years.


49-Year Jubilee Cycles

Solar-Side 4 x 49-Year Jubilee Cycle + 14-Year-Week = 210-Year Time Split Figure 2


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Solar-Side 4 x 49-Year Jubilee Cycle + 14-Year-Week = 210-Year Time Split Figure 2


The Festival of Sokar or Choiak during the 18th dynasty was a 10-11 day agricultural festival named for the rebirth of Osiris after he had been killed by Seth. Burying seeds in the ground was a metaphor for burial of the dead. Farmers sowed seeds by pushing them into the ground and planting clay figurines of Osiris. Sprouting seeds serve to symbolize resurrection. Choiak and Sokar are known since the 5th dynasty from the Old Kingdom. At the end of the Nile flood season and fourth month of the Egyptian civil calendar, Choiak occurs in late October of the modern calendar. Choiak customarily is the first 6-day half of a funerary ritual devoted to all things Osiris. In Pharoah Ninetjer's 2nd dynasty (c. 2800 BCE) era, Choiak-Sokar's festival was celebrated every 6-years. On the night of Choiak 25th/26th, deceased are made divine through mummification restoring vital powers to Sokar-Osiris. Dismembered Sokar-Osiris becomes solar Osiris for the next 5-days. Sokar ends in fertility rites associated with Ptah, a creator god linked with trees, grain and corn. Raising the sacred djed-pillar reenacts the phallic representation of Osirian lore.

Two New Year's day festivals show co-mingling of Egyptian sacred and civil years. An original lunar 360-day calendar derives from celebrating sacred agricultural seasons and harvests. Three seasons of four months coupled with intercalary 29.5-day or 30-day months tie the 11-day Festival of Opet with a lunar-side rendition. Little is known about the festival prior to the 18th dynasty. However, it became significant by lengthening to 27-days in the 20th dynasty. Festivals and barque (barge) rituals were often localized and cult driven by the most popular gods. Pharaohs and priests alike placed the god's stone statue upon a sledge or barge and procession ensued to mimic the act of the god traversing below the horizon. Festivals were often obscure and changed over time, merging with other festivals or by changing the gods or events they celebrated.

New Year's Day (Wep-renpet) according to the later civil year, was the first day of the solar year and marked rejuvenation and rebirth for everyone. Feast of Wagy was originally set according to lunar basis and never was totally discarded. A second Wagy feast was later established for the 18th-day of the first civil month. Wep-renpet was also the last month during the Middle Kingdom. When the dawn rising occurred during the last 11-days of Wep-renpet, the additional Greek month of Thoth was added. Every 2-3 years, a second Thoth month prevented the 11-day festival from landing into the first lunar month of the next civil year. Egyptians changed their days at dawn, so the presence of utilizing a 364 day-Ethiopic-year versus the 365 day-solar-year reserves 1-day for numerical matching purposes. The first new moon following the reappearance of Sirius after it disappeared under the horizon for 70-days was established as the first day of the new year and the flood period. Mummification process for the Pharaoh lasted about the same 70-day duration. Popular obsession with funerary practices explain why Osiris is a god of the dead.

Egypt's perfect 360-day midpoint (Tun) length of year recognizes the middle point between 354 or 355 day-lunar-years, and 364 or 365 day-solar-years. Segmentation allows the remaining Solar-Side 5-day Epagomenal separation to include the first Osirian day and possibly the second day, named for intercalary Horus. Consensus agreeing with a 10 or 11-day Sokar festival reveals both are feasible. From studies regarding Jewish Calendar Metonic 19 year-lunar/solar-cycles and later Mesoamerican Calendar Katun 20 year-lunar/solar-cycles, there are 209-days to 210-days of lunar/solar separation time. Solar-Side separation time is half or 105-days in a familiar Egyptian Calendar masculine pattern. Counting 5 Epagomenal-days per year, the product of 105-days is realized for an Egyptian 21 year l/s-cycle. Leap cycles potentially bring into play 105-days of Solar-Side time split per Egyptian 20 year l/s-cycle. Leap Day insertions are weighed conjecture prior to the official Canopus Degree of 238 BCE. Jewish 364 day-Ethiopic-years may link with Egyptian omission of Osirian to Horus 2nd day intercalations. Access to the Jewish system is granted by following 7-year-weeks. Here, 21-years are expressed as 3 cycles of 7-year-weeks. Substituting 5 Epagomenal-days per year shows 35 Epagomenal-days per each 7-year-week. And 3 cycles of 7-year-weeks amounts 3 times 35 Epagomenal-days in order to reach the same 105-days of Solar-Side time split over 21-years. All three cultures employed the same lunar/solar separation time techniques.


50-Year Jubilee Cycles

Solar-Side 4 x 50-Ethiopic-Year Jubilee Cycle + 10-Ethiopic-Year = 210-Ethiopic-Year Time Split Figure 3


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Solar-Side 4 x 50-Ethiopic-Year Jubilee Cycle + 10-Ethiopic-Year = 210-Ethiopic-Year Time Split Figure 3


Jewish 50-Year Jubilee Cycles (Figure 3) subscribe to another group choosing to adhere to the old ways. They likely supported 364 day-Ethiopic-years early on and later substituted 365 day-solar-years into calendar equations. They too distanced themselves from anything Egyptian, maintained Sabbath and observed sacred festivals according to prescribed directives. Lunar-side calendars were always a consistent standard that never stood totally independent over long annual multiples. Vernal, spring equinoxes were an original solar calendar method for starting solar years in Mesopotamia. Babylonian star charts have enabled archeologists to gather evidence supporting spring equinox solar year beginnings. Estimates for dating the Pleiades star cluster dawn rising on the vernal equinox range around 2350 BCE. From Numbers 29:1, six 30-day months are 180-days, and Rosh Hashanah falls on the first day of Tishri or the seventh lunar month. Nisan-Abib is a compound name made from Hebrew Nisan, Babylonian Nisanu and Cannanite Abib or Aviv.


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